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Prapancha Mithyatva Anumana khandana – Teeka

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Prapancha Mithyatva Anumana khandanam – teeka of Sri Jayatheertha is published in Kannada and Sanskrit PDF downloadable formant

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Prapancha Mithyatvanumana Khandana is one of the three texts that are known as Khandanatraya. Mayavada Khandana and Upadi khandana are the two other texts in this group

In the Advaita classics the syllogism ‘विमतं मिथ्या दृश्यत्वात्’ is proposed to establish the Mithyatva of the world. शुक्तिरजत is given as दृष्टान्त.This syllogism is reviewed in detail in the present text and rejected. In the course of the review, the fallacies in respect of पक्ष, साध्य, हेतु and दृष्टान्त are pointed out. The Text is very brief. However, Sri Jayatheertha has discussed each fallacy in detail. The Fallacies are stated as under :

1. जगतः अभावान् आश्रयासिद्धः पक्षः।

Since the world is not real according to Advaita, it does not exist. Hence this syllogism suffers from the fallacy of आश्रयासिद्धि, that is to say the very locus to establish the साध्य is not existent.

2. अनिर्वचनीयासिद्धेः अप्रसिद्धविशेषणः ।

The साध्य i.e. मिथ्यात्वis defined as अनिर्वचनीय in Advaita. Since, the very concept of अनिर्वचनीयत्व cannot be established, the साध्य which is an adjective of पक्ष is not be be found. Hence, this syllogism suffers from the fallacy of अप्रसिद्धविशेषणता।

3. In case, मिथ्यात्व is defined as सदसद्विलक्षण, the syllogism will suffer from सिद्धसाधनता. The expression सदसद्विलक्षण could be explained in two ways : 1)सदसल्क्षण्यविशिष्टा (ii)सद्वैलक्षण्यम्। In either case it will lead to सिद्धासाधनता। Every, सत object is distinct from the other सत् objects. Therefore, without accepting anything new, it states what is already known. The same is the case with the other prase viz. सदसत्त्वानाश्रय. An object has either सत्त्व or असत्त्व.Therefore, this phrase also does not convey any new concept. It states what is ready known. Hence, this definition of Mithyatva leads to सिद्धसाधनता.

These three fallacies point out the draw backs of प्रतिज्ञा i.e. the statement of the proposition.

4.दृश्यत्वाभावादसिद्धो हेतुः। अनिर्वचनीयासिद्धेः।

The हेतु viz. दृश्यत्व also suffers from असिद्धि। in Advaita दृष्यत्व is also not सत्. It is also अनिर्वचनीय. This अनिर्वचनीयत्व is not yet established. Therefore, this हेतु also suffers from असिद्धि.

5. अनिर्वचनीयासिद्धेरेव सपक्षाभावाद् विरुद्धः।

Since the concept of अनिर्वचनीयत्व cannot be established, no entity with this attribute is available to be considered as सपक्ष. On the other hand, since, वियत् etc. all objects are included in the पक्ष, शुक्तिरजत has to be treated as विपक्ष. The हेतु suffers from अनिर्वचनीयत्व is present in it according to Advaita. This results in the हेतु suffering from the fallacy विरुद्ध.

6. The आत्मन् which is विपक्ष for this syllogism has दृषटत्व. Therefore, the हेतु suffers from अनैकान्तिक i.e. being present in विपक्ष। Though advaitin is reluctant to accept दृश्यत्व for आत्मन् he has to accept it ब्रह्मज्ञानाय प्रवृत्तानां वैयर्थ्यापत्त्यादियुक्तिभिः आत्मनि दृश्यत्वस्य तं प्रति समर्थनात्। More over, it is stated by Advaitin himself that सर्वप्रत्ययवेद्य ब्रह्मरूपे व्यवस्थिते and दृश्यत्व is accepted.

7. जगतो अभावे अऩुमानस्यापि अभावः इति तर्कबाधितत्वेन अनध्यवसितः।

If the world were not real, then, the syllogism that is proposed to establish the unreality is also unreal, hence, this हेतु suffers from the fallacy of अनध्यवसित.

8. प्रत्यक्षादिविरुद्धत्वात् ‘विश्वं सत्यम्’ इत्यादिवाक्यविरुद्धत्वाच्च कालात्ययापदिष्टः।

Since the very concept of Mithyatva i.e. the unreality of the world is against the perception and the scripture the syllogism proposed to establish it suffers from the fallacy कालात्ययापदिष्टः

9. शुक्तिरजतस्यापि अनिर्वचनीयत्वाभावात् साध्यविकलो दृष्टान्तः।

Even शुक्तिरजत is not अनिर्वचनीय. It is असत्. Therefore, this syllogism suffer from the fallacy दृष्टान्ते साध्यवैकल्य.

10. उक्तप्रकारेण दृस्यत्वाभावात् साधनविकलश्च।

It is already pointed out the sukti rajata experience is an erroneous experience. Therefore, it has no दृश्यत्व. It is not an object of a valid experience. Hence, the दृश्यत्वsuffers from the fallacy of साधन वैकल्य.

Finally the प्रमाणविरुद्धत्व is an उपाधि here.

Fom the above statement of fallacies. It is clear that all the fallacies of a syllogism are found in this one syllogism. All these arise out of one drawback i.e. the inability to decline Mithyatva and the untenabilityof definitions given in advaita for this concept. Suktirajata is taken as model to conceive this concept. Howeer, sukti rajata is as much असत् as शशविषाण. Therefore, it cannot serve as a ground to conceive a सदसदनिर्वचनीय entity.

Prapancha Mithyatvanumana Khandana is a very short treatise. However, the points made here are develoed in Vadavali by Shree Jayatheertha, in Vadaratnavali by Sri Visnudasacharya and finally in Nyayamrita by Sri Vyasatirtha.

On the Advaita side also many good works are composed on this topic. Prominent among these is Advaita Siddhi. A vast commentatorial literature also has developed on Nyayamrita and Advaita Siddhi. Thus, this text is a starting point for vast polemical literature of Dvaita-Advaita.

In addition to this text, Sri Madhvacharya discusses this syllogism in Anuvyakhyana, and his other works also. His brief observations in all these works are fully developed in the works stated above.

This small text also has given rise to good many commentaries. Sri Jayathirtha’s Teeka explains this text in a compact very judicial way.

A reader will acquire higher skill in identifying the merits and the fallacies of syllogism. He will develop his logical faculty more, than merely acquiring the vedantic thought.

Fortune has brought us here to delve on this crisp intellectual work. Without hesitation, shall we ponder on this work. Then click the below link and enjoy :

07-Kan-PrapanchaMithyathwAnumAnaKhandan-Teeka231120141

07-San-PrapanchaMithyathwAnumAnaKhandan-Teeka23112014

 

We profoundly thank Sri Dr G M Jayateertha  for permitting us to upload his extremely useful Kannada translation of this work. Readers would be highly benefited if this Kannada translation could be used. Here is this attachment too :

PrapanchMK-JayateerthaDr


9 Comments

  1. Class X optics is based on the classical models of modern day physics. A good explanation is given on why things appear big whebn near and small when far although the size is same!!!. I have not found any explanation in our ancient heritage literature.

    in http://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/3488/why-do-things-that-are-far-away-seem-smaller

    If you have found it the nation will be ever greatful to you.Why this is important is that people and kids will know how Big – Big is and how small small is This is a beautiful site to get a perspective of the size of the earth in realation to Sun. If the oon were 1 pixel how big would the Solar system be. http://joshworth.com/dev/pixelspace/pixelspace_solarsystem.html

    Now when you are to deal with quantum, ,mechanics – “status of the observer (a wave function superimposes multiple co-existing states that have different probabilities; observation causes collapse of the wave function to some specific state, in several interpretations , as in the famous example of Schrödinger’s Cat).

    I do not like paradoxes and ILLUSIONS – MITHYA any more than this “refutations” BUT quantum mechanics and dual states illusions. The light from stars we see have left them years ago. Are they ther now in real time – We have no idea.

    Belligerent refutations of Shankara doesn’t hold water

    • Dr. Jayateertha G.M. says:

      First of all please understand that we are not refuting Shankar for the sake of refuting from that we neither going to gain anything nor establish anything. Its sheer based on the arguments put forth by him to prove that world is illusion. This text of Shrimadacharya questions those basic arguments on the basis of tarka and validations.
      Coming to your first question please refer Taitiriya Upanishad (shiksha valli & brahma valli) KathaUpanishad (Second adhyaya) and Brihadarnyaka Upnishad. Please try to read original texts not translations. Let me know any of my help in this regard.
      Coming to your second question:
      Firstly there is difference between real and realtime. Your example star light for realtime is right but you cannot say that, thats illusion.
      In this case one need to go back to basics of real and illusion. Each one of us have both experience we can not deny that. Like we have distinct experience what is real and dream. From your dream experience you cannot nullify your real experience nor the other way too. When we experience our sakshi tells exactly whether it is real without any validation by or there is an perception which needs further clarification. When we experience perception we know very well in advance that its perception not exact real. Like when we see a star we know in advance that star is far away and its dimension we cannot judge correctly. To that extent we make further investigations to get the dimensions based on scientific theories.
      Regarding Quantum Mechanics explanation, one should understand that these theories are built on probabilistic models cannot establish world as illusion. Lot of research need to be done yet. To establish this world as illusion one need to have another real world without which illusion has no meaning. Illusion has to be conditioned in time space dimensions. Non-conditioned illusion has no meaning and cannot be experienced too.Hence only based on mere perception we cannot conclude that world is illusion.

  2. “Time is not an illusion! How can it be? What’s real is space time!” has key words Time illusion! real and space – reordered it is 1)real 2)illusion! 3)Time and 4)space . Now 1) Real and 2) Illusion . Illusion is a perception of reality

    Is the perception TRUE or FALSE. – here is where the catch is A mirage (illusion) can be perceived by our senses as well as sensors/probes we may devise. The only way to know whether it is indeed water in the desert or not is to have corroborating data/evidence. eg. NASA data showing there is no water in the area where our senss/sensors have recorded what appeared to be water. As long as the reporting of perception is not willfully falsified Phenomenon in nature reported by a human/sentient is reality..

    Yes Space is Reality and so is Time. My fingers are touching the keyboard that is REALITY but that also is an ILLUSION because at the micro physics levels the atoms dont touch each other. So space is an illusion too. (if touch = 0 space between two objects) The clocks we devise is a measure of periodic occurence of some phenomena it could be the stick and shadow on the ground or or oscillation of atoms in caesium. We cannot think really of Time 0 . where there is no oscillation – Wolfgang Ketterle phenomenal work on Bose-Einstein condensates could probably lead to smallest time units measurable http://newsoffice.mit.edu/2001/ketterle Sanskrit ancient literature talks of two kinds of time. The first is actually the creator and destryer of all things. This is immeasurable . The second type of time again has two types a) the immeasurable coz of hugeness or miuteness b) the measurable which is what we use – thanks regards

  3. Jayateertha says:

    Prapancha Mithyatva Anumaan Khandana is one of the the most fundamental, terse and tough prakarangranthas of Shrimadacharya. And it is full of Nyaya technical terms. These technical terms and entire granth in particular cannot be explained properly unless you know them thoroughly through teeka tippanis. In the lack of these understandings its very difficult to put the right translation in English. It needs not only needs your scholarship in English language and in Sanskrit too!!!
    Please don’t put such shallow and mediocre translation of the text in English!!!!! which conveys a total different meaning to the people (who know English only) at large.

    • srimadhvyasa says:

      Respected Sir.

      Sorry for errors/mistakes on account of our shallow understanding… However, we would grateful, if you can make constructive suggestions for corrections. Without precisely pointing out the shortcomings, shallow criticism would make no notable value addition…. Would be grateful, if you can add value with constructive and positive contribution.

      Regards

      • Dr. Jayateertha G.M. says:

        I understand your noble intention also sorry if I have made any untoward remarks.
        What positive inputs I can give to improve? Article doesn’t even explains basics? What is anumaan?
        You use lot of technical jargon terms without explaining there meaning in English. What one understands? What reader gets from it?
        Take any Sanskrit sentence see your explanation in English can you able to make any meaning out of it?
        For e.g Finally the प्रमाणविरुद्धत्व is an उपाधि here.
        What is the meaning of this?
        That why I said, to explain these technical terms you need to be very good in English and takes lot lot of efforts?
        Please count how many technical terms you have used in this article of two pages….. imagine how many will be there in the original text?
        I know from where you have taken this article? Please read Prastavana written in Sanskrit in that text book.
        I don’t know why this hip and cry for putting in English ???? when basic understanding is not there?

  4. Girish Wadhwa says:

    Hare Krishna…
    We are looking for a complete book (preferred in Hindi) about Sri Madhvacharya Ji. Whatever they have done in establishing the math and all other work. Please help…..

    Thank You

    • srimadhvyasa says:

      You can download all the works sri Acharya Madhwa from the website, which is published in Devanagari/Sanskrit… REgards

      • Girish Wadhwa says:

        Thanks for your kind reply…..
        One more thing like from where I can get those hardcopies in Bangalore…!!!

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